Gambling is the wagering of something of value, typically money or other personal property, on an event with a random outcome and without the benefit of skill that could increase the chances of winning. The term “gambling” does not imply skill in games that are truly random, such as dice or roulette, but it also does not include activities that require some level of skill such as card games, sports betting, and horse racing (Oxford English Dictionary, 1989). Historically, the word “gambling” was used to describe fraudulent gameters, sharpers and rooks who took advantage of people’s trust and confidence in them.
Compulsive gambling, also known as pathological gambling, can affect people from all walks of life. It can harm relationships, interfere with work and study, and lead to financial disaster. People with a problem may hide their addiction and even resort to theft or fraud.
In the US, some forms of gambling are legal and regulated, such as state lotteries, horse races, and casinos. Other forms of gambling are not legal and often occur underground, with little oversight. Illegal gambling is a significant source of criminal activity, such as prostitution, money laundering, and organized crime.
Generally, there is less research on gambling than on other mental disorders, but some studies have found that the same cognitive and motivational factors can influence gambling behavior as those associated with other psychiatric disorders. Some of these factors include a person’s beliefs about the likelihood of winning, his or her perception that certain rituals or practices can bring luck, and his or her desire to win back losses. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for gambling problems and has been shown to reduce impulsivity and increase self-control.
Another factor influencing gambling is the social context in which it takes place. For example, men who play poker together or people who visit a racetrack often form friendships around their shared interest; and women who attend bingo games are likely to make friends with other women at the same time. In addition, gambling enterprises use a variety of marketing techniques to attract and retain customers. These can include easy credit, low entrance costs (nickel slots or $1 lottery tickets), and promotional offers such as free games, food, drinks, hotel rooms, and shows.
Some people gamble as a way to relieve unpleasant feelings such as loneliness or boredom. However, there are healthier ways to manage moods and relieve boredom, such as exercising, spending time with friends who don’t gamble, or reading a book or listening to music. People who gamble to escape from unpleasant experiences or to avoid dealing with stressful situations should seek professional help. Depression, anxiety and other mood disorders can trigger gambling problems and be made worse by compulsive gambling. They can also make it difficult to stop gambling. People with these underlying mood problems should also seek treatment. They may benefit from a combination of psychotherapy and medication.